被特朗普帶火後,這款軟件卻被蘋果、谷歌和亞馬遜全面封殺

{"type":"doc","content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"在剛過去的週末,一款因特朗普迅速火起來的社交App,也或將因特朗普而走向消亡。"}]},{"type":"heading","attrs":{"align":null,"level":2},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"被特朗普支持者選中的App"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"美國科技巨頭蘋果、谷歌和亞馬遜正對一款聚集衆多特朗普支持者的社交平臺Parler進行封殺。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"Parler是一家標榜言論自由、不偏不倚的社交媒體平臺,這對於在Twitter、Facebook等平臺失意的特朗普及其支持者來說,是重要的替代性平臺。早前特朗普的競選活動推動了Parler的發展,過去幾個月該平臺的用戶量亦增長迅速,特朗普和他的幾個子女在Parler上都有賬號。Parler亦幾度成爲Android和iOS美國下載榜的榜首。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"從上週五晚開始,谷歌、蘋果和亞馬遜分別對Parler進行下架和停服處理,理由是Parler對內容缺乏管理,平臺仍充斥大量有害的煽動暴力和犯罪的言論。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"蘋果曾在上週五給Parler發整改通知,限其在24小時內解決問題。週六,蘋果在一份聲明中表示已將Parler從App Store中下架,直到他們解決這些問題爲止。蘋果認爲,Parler採取的減緩或防止危險和非法內容擴散的程序是不充分的。“我們一直支持在App Store上體現不同的觀點,但我們的平臺上不允許暴力威脅和非法活動存在。”"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"隨後亞馬遜也稱將不再向Parler提供雲服務。據BuzzFeedNews,Parler每月向AWS支付超過30萬美元的託管費用。但有分析認爲,即使不用雲服務,自建數據中心也是困難重重,未必有其它託管服務商願意提供服務。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"image","attrs":{"src":"https:\/\/static001.infoq.cn\/resource\/image\/yy\/1d\/yy9a255ef3945460cb4d896928f0f61d.png","alt":null,"title":"","style":[{"key":"width","value":"75%"},{"key":"bordertype","value":"none"}],"href":"","fromPaste":false,"pastePass":false}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"這次科技巨頭圍剿的導火線爲特朗普在上週三煽動暴徒入侵美國國會大廈。事件發生的隔天TikTok也宣佈將封禁所有有關特朗普煽動暴徒的內容。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"據Axios統計,目前已經有大量軟件對特朗普的相關賬戶採取了封禁或限制措施,包括Facebook、TikTok、Youtube、Instagram、Snapchat、Pinterest、Reddit、視頻軟件Twitch、電商軟件Shopify和Discord。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"Parler首席執行官John Matze在自己的平臺賬戶上對亞馬遜、谷歌和蘋果展開抨擊,他指控這三家公司在明知Parler沒有多少選擇的情況下采取了一致的措施,而且由於特朗普已經被其他社交媒體平臺封殺,所以此舉將構成極大的破壞。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"image","attrs":{"src":"https:\/\/static001.infoq.cn\/resource\/image\/03\/0b\/034ebb38ffc46325bc693e139dea350b.png","alt":null,"title":"","style":[{"key":"width","value":"75%"},{"key":"bordertype","value":"none"}],"href":"","fromPaste":false,"pastePass":false}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"不過Parler亦開始有所妥協。外媒指出,週日Parler刪除了特朗普的競選律師兼支持者林·伍德(Lin Wood)的多條帖子,其中包括伍德在帖子裏呼籲對副總統邁克·彭斯(Mike Pence)採取暴力手段。這是該社交平臺首次刪除一位高調保守派人士的內容。"}]},{"type":"heading","attrs":{"align":null,"level":2},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"Parler會消失嗎"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"Parler在2018年9月上線,總部設在美國內華達州的亨德森市。根據Sensor Tower的統計,去年Parler的下載量超過1000萬次,其中80%在美國。伴隨巨頭的圍剿,它或許很快就要消失。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"John Matze在最新的採訪中指出,公司可能會破產。他表示難以找到新的服務供應商。“所有(服務)供應商--從短信服務到電子郵件供應商再到我們的律師等所有合作伙伴,在同一天拋棄了我們。”"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"他補充道:“我們會盡最大努力盡快恢復在線。但我們遇到了很多麻煩,因爲與我們交談的每個供應商都說他們不會與我們合作。因爲如果蘋果不批准,谷歌不批准,那麼他們也不會批准。”"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"Matze承認,針對Parler的這些禁令可能會導致該公司停業。他還稱這些禁令正在引發對保護言論自由的擔心,並認爲是“對每個人的攻擊。”"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"上週三的國會暴亂事件發生幾小時後,Matze在接受《紐約時報》採訪時說:“我對這一切都不承擔任何責任,平臺也不應承擔責任,因爲我們是一個只需遵守法律的中立的‘城市廣場’(意指開放的公共空間)。 ”"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"另外據紐約時報報道,Parler的首席運營官Jeffrey Wernick在接受採訪時說,已經聽到有幾家公司願意給Parler提供幫助。但他拒絕透露這些公司的名字。“從現在起一個月後Parler會是什麼樣,我不能告訴你。”他說, “但是Parler不會消失。”"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"Parler現已成爲互聯網言論自由以及Facebook,谷歌,蘋果和亞馬遜等科技巨頭是否擁有過多權力的討論案例。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"紐約時報指出,多年來,Facebook和Twitter捍衛了人們對在其網站上暢所欲言的能力,而亞馬遜,蘋果,谷歌也不會去管Parler這類應用的運營,這使得網絡上總流傳着錯誤和虛假信息。後來這些科技公司對特朗普和Parler採取的限制行動受到了自由派和其他人士的稱讚。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"但是,此舉也引發了人們的疑問,即私人企業可以如何決定“誰留在網上,誰不留在網上”。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"以Twitter爲例,加拿大郵報傳媒集團數據科學經理、評論人士李軍在其FT專欄文章中評價道:Twitter對於特朗普的全面永久封殺,給我們演示了社交媒體巨頭是如何進行“無需審判,就地槍決”操作的。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"李軍認爲,言論自由的界限是由國家的法律來界定的,而不是由互聯網平臺的內部規則來界定的。如果互聯網平臺認爲自己用戶的內容突破了言論自由的界限,可以拿起法律的武器,獲得司法或者行政機關的合法授權後永久封殺某個用戶。否則互聯網平臺只能根據已經發布的內容是否違規來採取相關限制措施,而不能假設風險,根據過往的歷史來針對某個具體個人進行封殺。如果不能明確這一點,互聯網平臺就在事實上獲得了平臺的言論裁判權 -- 而且是針對具體個人而不是某個虛擬賬號的。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"在被禁止進入Twitter後,特朗普曾在一份聲明中說,他將“考慮在不久的將來建立我們自己的平臺的可能性。”"}]}]}
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