十年經驗帖 | 敏捷轉型6大誤區

{"type":"doc","content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"改變,對任何人來說都很難,對團隊來說更是難上加難。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"同理,敏捷轉型帶來的重大變革也會很艱難。甚至,有時候敏捷轉型反而會帶來短時間的產能下降。爲了幫助更多研發團隊順利過渡到敏捷,我們以十餘年的管理實踐,整理了這份:","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":"center","origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"size","attrs":{"size":12}},{"type":"strong","attrs":{}}],"text":"敏捷轉型之路的 6 大誤區","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"heading","attrs":{"align":null,"level":1},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"01","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"size","attrs":{"size":16}},{"type":"strong","attrs":{}}],"text":"從培訓開始","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"在轉型開始之前,讓整個團隊參加敏捷培訓是一個很直觀的選擇。然而在團隊真正做好準備前就去上課,也許會導致一些問題。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"缺乏足夠的心理認同或不能代入工作場景,可能讓團隊在培訓後只能消化小部分敏捷知識;少部分團隊成員甚至可能因爲不認同敏捷概念而不斷提出挑戰, 從而影響整個團隊的積極性。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":" ","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"任何轉型,成功的最關鍵步驟都是瞭解爲什麼需要改變。每個人都需要了解敏捷帶來的好處。如果應用得當,敏捷能使團隊更快地交付,立刻爲客戶提供部分價值和更早地獲得客戶反饋。在傳統的瀑布式項目中,團隊也會和客戶定期溝通。但由於缺少客戶的實時反饋,團隊難以快速適應需求的變化,最後交付的產品自然無法滿足客戶的需要。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"當團隊成員理解需要敏捷轉型的原因及其對每個人工作的意義,並且產生認同感後,正式的培訓就變得很重要。團隊會在對敏捷的理解和溝通上保持一致,這是成功轉型的基礎。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"這裏需要強調的是:","attrs":{}},{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"strong","attrs":{}}],"text":"敏捷轉型成功的團隊必需是一個自驅動的團隊,而不是一個強管制的團隊。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":"br"}},{"type":"heading","attrs":{"align":null,"level":1},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"02","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"size","attrs":{"size":16}},{"type":"strong","attrs":{}}],"text":"敏捷就是Scrum?","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"No! 敏捷是一種方法論,而","attrs":{}},{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"strong","attrs":{}}],"text":"Scrum是敏捷最主流的框架之一","attrs":{}},{"type":"text","text":"。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"敏捷正式誕生在2001年,17位開發者一起發表了“敏捷軟件開發宣言”。在這之前,很多大家今天熟知的框架如Scrum,XP,FDD等已經存在。這些框架和後來誕生的Kanban都大量借鑑了製造業的先進理念,並將其應用於軟件開發領域。在敏捷轉型中,瞭解並選擇適合您的框架至關重要。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"image","attrs":{"src":"https://static001.geekbang.org/infoq/51/513fabeebbb97c4e0a3aab958afbdb2e.webp","alt":"圖片","title":null,"style":[{"key":"width","value":"75%"},{"key":"bordertype","value":"none"}],"href":null,"fromPaste":true,"pastePass":true}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":"center","origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"size","attrs":{"size":9}}],"text":"圖源:https://www.systemsvalley.com/getting-better-at-agile-using-kanban-principles/","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":"br"}},{"type":"heading","attrs":{"align":null,"level":1},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"03","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"size","attrs":{"size":16}},{"type":"strong","attrs":{}}],"text":"敏捷項目不需要計劃…","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"對於傳統的瀑布型項目,在項目開始前就有詳細計劃的任務分解甘特圖。然而真實的項目過程中,需求總在不斷地變化,甚至一些需求或潛在問題在項目開始時是不可預測的,因此起初制定的詳細計劃就會顯得雞肋。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"但這並不表明敏捷項目沒有計劃,","attrs":{}},{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"strong","attrs":{}}],"text":"其計劃的過程是一個持續且變化的過程。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":"br"}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"在敏捷項目開始前,團隊應制定項目的總體目標;之後,在每個迭代開始前制定迭代計劃(細化到此迭代的需求和相應的工作任務)。隨着迭代的持續交付和客戶的反饋,敏捷項目的計劃在不斷地調整,一切以實現對客戶交付價值的最大化爲主。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"image","attrs":{"src":"https://static001.geekbang.org/infoq/70/70585896324cddee677a410617c9d0b0.webp","alt":"圖片","title":null,"style":[{"key":"width","value":"75%"},{"key":"bordertype","value":"none"}],"href":null,"fromPaste":true,"pastePass":true}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"幫助團隊適應項目的不確定性及基於變化的計劃,才能讓團隊更快地轉型。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":" ","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"heading","attrs":{"align":null,"level":1},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"04","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"size","attrs":{"size":16}},{"type":"strong","attrs":{}}],"text":"輕易地回退","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"很少有人喜歡變化,在面臨壓力時,人們往往會恢復到他們習慣的工作方式。在每次敏捷轉型中,團隊向敏捷轉型的決心都會受到考驗。當一個正在轉型的項目遇到麻煩時,不要輕易地放棄,進而收回對一個自組織團隊的控制權。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":" ","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"當程序和項目遇到困難時,請相信流程,並利用敏捷框架的持續改進機制來反思哪些需要調整,在下一次迭代中改進。這可能在短期內降低團隊的產能,但會帶來敏捷轉型的長期成功。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"麥肯錫曾經對許多世界500強公司的敏捷轉型做過調研。其中就有一個亞洲電信巨頭的例子。該公司的業績是由上市時間和績效目標的實現來衡量的。在公司高層決定採取敏捷工作法之後的3個月內,業績有所下降。但三個月後,其業績開始快速增長,最終遠遠超過了公司實踐敏捷之前的水平。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":"br"}},{"type":"heading","attrs":{"align":null,"level":1},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"05","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"size","attrs":{"size":16}},{"type":"strong","attrs":{}}],"text":"敏捷適用於任何項目任何團隊","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"團隊的規模越大,靈活性就越差。按照康威定律的結論:“設計系統的組織受限於生產設計,這些設計是組織溝通結構的副本”。敏捷的最佳實踐是:把較大的團隊按照產品或項目劃分爲不同的敏捷小組,充分發揮溝通成本低的優勢。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":" ","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"對於週期長,需求明確且不會變更的項目,在項目開始前能夠清晰地定義出目標範圍和工作任務,由於在項目的各個階段團隊高度聚焦,瀑布可能是一個更好的選擇。但從長遠的考量出發,敏捷的團隊能夠得到更多的價值驅動,從而更好地完成交付。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":"br"}},{"type":"heading","attrs":{"align":null,"level":1},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"06","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"size","attrs":{"size":16}},{"type":"strong","attrs":{}}],"text":"敏捷≈更快地寫代碼?","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"如果一個團隊把加快開發速度作爲敏捷轉型的目標,他們很可能會失望。讓我們重讀一下敏捷的12條原則,不難看出,","attrs":{}},{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"strong","attrs":{}}],"text":"敏捷關注的是更早地交付部分價值給客戶,基於反饋快速調整並持續交付價值。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"對於相同工作量的產品開發,由於敏捷項目會將開發工作分到多個迭代中,假設需求沒有變更,開發速度甚至會比瀑布型慢。也許選擇敏捷不一定等同於選擇了高速度,究其本質,敏捷不一定能保證產品的交付速度,但它能讓團隊實時調整,創造出更符合客戶需求的產品。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":" ","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"strong","attrs":{}}],"text":"關注價值而不是速度,是敏捷轉型的精髓。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"horizontalrule","attrs":{}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"直到今天,敏捷誕生已有20年,傳統項目管理模式更是有超過50年的歷史。這兩者並沒有絕對的對或錯,對於不同類型的工作,不同的團隊,","attrs":{}},{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"strong","attrs":{}}],"text":"如何在高速變化的時代裏找到最適合自己的工作方式才最重要","attrs":{}},{"type":"text","text":"。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"最後附上敏捷的 12 條原則,希望對大家有所啓發:","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"1.我們的最高優先級,就是儘早和持續交付有價值的軟件來滿足客戶。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"2.擁抱需求變更,即使在開發後期。敏捷利用變化來爲客戶創造競爭優勢。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"3.用數週到數月的週期,持續交付可工作的軟件,交付週期越短越好。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"4.在整個項目週期,業務人員和開發人員必須每天在一起工作。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"5.圍繞積極進取的個人建立項目,給他們需要的環境和支持,並相信他們會完成工作。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"6.信息傳遞最有效的方式是面對面的溝通。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"7.可工作的軟件,是衡量進度的首要標準。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"8.敏捷倡導可持續發展。贊助者、開發者和用戶應該能夠一直保持恆定的速度。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"9.對技術卓越的持續關注和良好的設計可以提升敏捷性。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"10.簡單,即最大程度減少不需要的工作,是敏捷的根本。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"11.最好的構架、需求和設計來自自組織的團隊。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"12.團隊定期反思如何提升效率,並相應地調整其行爲。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"期待大家在實踐敏捷的過程中找到價值,也歡迎和我們溝通討論。後續我們還將分享更多敏捷之道及研發管理實踐,期待大家關注我們 ","attrs":{}},{"type":"link","attrs":{"href":"https://www.infoq.cn/u/ligaai/publish","title":"","type":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"[email protected]","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"text","text":"~瞭解我們請點擊官方網站 ","attrs":{}},{"type":"link","attrs":{"href":"https://ligai.cn/","title":"","type":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"LigaAI-新一代智能研發管理平臺","attrs":{}}]}]}]}
發表評論
所有評論
還沒有人評論,想成為第一個評論的人麼? 請在上方評論欄輸入並且點擊發布.
相關文章