經典譯文 | 項目經理必讀的基本工作法則

{"type":"doc","content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"我們都知道人的左右大腦各有分工。左腦主導理性、探索和細緻;右腦則主導創造性、本能和同理心。因此,我給到項目經理們 (PM) 的","attrs":{}},{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"strong","attrs":{}}],"text":"兩個核心項目管理法則","attrs":{}},{"type":"text","text":",也是基於左腦與右腦的差異:","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#4c84ff","name":"user"}}],"text":"A.不斷強化任務效果:","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"你需要掌握一種事務管理的方法論,在信息量充足的前提下,增強對團隊核心目標的影響。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#4c84ff","name":"user"}}],"text":"B.借力打力:","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"PM本身不直接處理項目中的事務,相反,他們通過賦能團隊成員,促進項目成長。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"image","attrs":{"src":"https://static001.geekbang.org/infoq/d4/d4e17bd64af4142076e07f03f4e034cc.png","alt":null,"title":"","style":[{"key":"width","value":"100%"},{"key":"bordertype","value":"none"}],"href":"","fromPaste":false,"pastePass":false}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"最出色的項目管理者能將這兩個標準融合到他們的每一個動作中,或者說,這兩個標準應該是他們所做的一切的出發點。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"heading","attrs":{"align":null,"level":1},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"強化任務效果","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"在一個團隊中,所有員工的工作焦點都應該是:實現公司的核心目標。無論這個目標是賺取數十億美元,還是創造更美好的世界,還是兩者都有。然而到目前爲止,團隊中的大多數人總是忙於應付客戶,做功能開發、包裝案例、提供技術支持……","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"必須要說明,我所提供的項目管理方法,並不是爲了應對客戶。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"綜合來看,","attrs":{}},{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"strong","attrs":{}}],"text":"項目管理的的中心職責是尋找達成目標的正確方法","attrs":{}},{"type":"text","text":",並向項目負責人和開發人員提供合適的建議。其中,最能快速找到正確方向的方法,我願稱其爲Item System。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"我很難跟你解釋到底什麼是Item System,但我可以告訴你,好的PM應該如何做。它需要你掌握三方面的信息:","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"bulletedlist","content":[{"type":"listitem","attrs":{"listStyle":null},"content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"項目目標是什麼?","attrs":{}}]}]},{"type":"listitem","attrs":{"listStyle":null},"content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"周圍的環境釋放了哪些信號?","attrs":{}}]}]},{"type":"listitem","attrs":{"listStyle":null},"content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"人員、資金和時間週期上,存在什麼限制?","attrs":{}}]}]}],"attrs":{}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"image","attrs":{"src":"https://static001.geekbang.org/infoq/69/694bd067b9ce41f978175b2bb0968692.png","alt":null,"title":"","style":[{"key":"width","value":"100%"},{"key":"bordertype","value":"none"}],"href":"","fromPaste":false,"pastePass":false}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"heading","attrs":{"align":null,"level":2},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"項目目標是什麼","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"strong","attrs":{}}],"text":"一切從目標開始。","attrs":{}},{"type":"text","text":" 如果你不知道你應該去哪裏,那每往前一步,都可能在緣木求魚。我看到 ","attrs":{}},{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"strong","attrs":{}}],"text":"PM 最大的問題之一是他們沒有花時間真正理解目標。","attrs":{}},{"type":"text","text":" 他們或許能夠背誦使命宣言,但他們瞭解這一切的基礎嗎?","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"image","attrs":{"src":"https://static001.geekbang.org/infoq/e8/e8751e87398cc26f84f63157771857eb.png","alt":null,"title":"","style":[{"key":"width","value":"100%"},{"key":"bordertype","value":"none"}],"href":"","fromPaste":false,"pastePass":false}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"strong","attrs":{}}],"text":"PM 還需要知道其他團隊如何爲工作目標做出貢獻。","attrs":{}},{"type":"text","text":" 尤其是在大公司中,所有團隊保持一致可以確保避免衝突,並且更好地爲團隊找到機會共同努力並加快進度。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"只有當 PM 確定他們知道公司的目標以及他們周圍其他團隊的目標時,他們纔能有效地設置自己團隊的目標,這些目標必須清楚地上升到更廣泛的使命。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"heading","attrs":{"align":null,"level":2},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"周圍環境釋放了哪些信號","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"大多數計劃都是從一條通往目標的直線開始的。但這條道路永遠不會結束,甚至有時目標過於遙遠,讓人無法判斷自己是否偏離了路線。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"爲了避免這種情況,PM 必須時刻關注項目的周邊環境,以檢測、預測和修正實現路徑。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"image","attrs":{"src":"https://static001.geekbang.org/infoq/e8/e8d5a7b5f55dab523985b6b9c157b883.png","alt":null,"title":"","style":[{"key":"width","value":"100%"},{"key":"bordertype","value":"none"}],"href":"","fromPaste":false,"pastePass":false}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"PM 要尋找的環境信號主要有兩類:","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"strong","attrs":{}}],"text":"客戶信號","attrs":{}},{"type":"text","text":" 積累關於客戶如何使用產品的定性和定量數據集。此數據就像是從目標傳回的ping,當您聽到反饋變得更強、更積極時,你就知道自己並沒有偏離路線太遠。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"strong","attrs":{}}],"text":"市場信號","attrs":{}},{"type":"text","text":" 是“小行星警告”,代表着外部因素對項目路徑的改變。它們包括了市場競爭關係變化、政策和社會經濟格局的變化等等,並時刻影響着公司及項目的發展。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"heading","attrs":{"align":null,"level":2},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"人員、資金和時間週期上,存在什麼限制?","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"火箭飛船能走多遠受到它所攜帶的燃料、機組人員的素質以及它利用類似木星等其他天體的引力提升的時間限制。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"同樣,產品研發團隊也受到項目中 ","attrs":{}},{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"strong","attrs":{}}],"text":"人員、資金和時間","attrs":{}},{"type":"text","text":" 的限制。在任何給定的任務中,產品團隊都將受到所有這三者的約束。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"image","attrs":{"src":"https://static001.geekbang.org/infoq/27/27e7f1433462efd55039047dbab652c5.png","alt":null,"title":"","style":[{"key":"width","value":"100%"},{"key":"bordertype","value":"none"}],"href":"","fromPaste":false,"pastePass":false}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"strong","attrs":{}}],"text":"人","attrs":{}},{"type":"text","text":" 往往是一個團隊最大的制約因素。很多時候,人們把這種限制簡單理解爲人數。然而,更重要的是","attrs":{}},{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"strong","attrs":{}}],"text":"團隊成員的實際技能和經驗水平。","attrs":{}},{"type":"text","text":" 有時產品規劃超出了某些團隊的能力範圍,這不是他們的錯,也不能說明他們最終的能力。但在選定研發路線時,項目經理必須先考慮到這一點。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"strong","attrs":{}}],"text":"資金","attrs":{}},{"type":"text","text":" 是一種潛在約束,與團隊聘用合適的人(薪水)、使他們能夠工作(辦公空間之類的開銷)、操作產品(服務器等支持)以及分發產品(營銷)的能力有關。用所有錢僱傭最好的團隊,但沒有辦公室供他們工作,或者沒有任何錢用於營銷,導致業務無法擴張,這都是愚蠢的做法。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"大多數公司已經將管理費用、運營和營銷成本的複雜性從 PM 的工作中抽離出來(以便他們可以專注於產品和運營節奏)。但是 ","attrs":{}},{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"strong","attrs":{}}],"text":"對一個優秀的PM來說,明白資金是有限的,依然非常重要。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"strong","attrs":{}}],"text":"時間","attrs":{}},{"type":"text","text":" 是最終的限制。與上述兩者不同,時間一旦耗盡,就無法再得到更多。時間代表着一個事實:尚未發佈的產品是不產生任何價值的,同時競爭對手每天都在搶佔市場份額。很殘酷,但這是現實。所以:**PM 必須管理時間週期。**他們必須確保不會錯過大機會,做出正確的權衡,並找到促進團隊執行的健康方式。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"heading","attrs":{"align":null,"level":2},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"制定正確的產品策略","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"當 PM 知道目標、瞭解環境並尊重約束時,他們就需要採集大量的相關信息,來構建一個偉大的產品策略,而最佳產品策略正是這些信息的交集點。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"image","attrs":{"src":"https://static001.geekbang.org/infoq/cd/cdf4a1fdafe8ec09078d21448781c5c1.png","alt":null,"title":"","style":[{"key":"width","value":"100%"},{"key":"bordertype","value":"none"}],"href":"","fromPaste":false,"pastePass":false}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"當然,如何制定正確的策略,從來知易行難。事實上,儘管我有足夠的信心寫這篇文章,也並不代表我總能在實踐中找到正確的策略。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"我希望傳遞的核心信息是:","attrs":{}},{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"strong","attrs":{}}],"text":"PM 需要儘可能廣博的知識來高效地收集和理解各方信息,並將其合成到最終戰略中。","attrs":{}},{"type":"text","text":" 對研發、用戶體驗、數據、財務、組織設計、運營、市場調研、營銷等方面的瞭解可以幫助PM更有效地組織信息,從而制定高可行性的成功策略。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"許多 PM 在壓力之下,選擇專注於一個領域,或者選擇把某個領域外包給另一個團隊執行(例如“市場部門會弄清楚如何分發產品”)。我認爲這種想法會適得其反,並且會限制您的潛力。不妨試着用學習來緩和恐懼,即便我們無法瞭解所有知識。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"heading","attrs":{"align":null,"level":1},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"借力打力","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"在火箭飛船的比喻中,你認爲 PM 是誰?是在目標星球上插國旗的人,還是船上的宇航員之一?答案是:二者皆非。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"PM實際上是地球上的任務控制中心。他們的工作是支持那些冒着生命危險執行任務的宇航員。作爲項目經理,你絕對不能忘記自己的職責 — 賦能。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"對不起。你甚至不在宇宙飛船上🚀。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"image","attrs":{"src":"https://static001.geekbang.org/infoq/8e/8e8cc4dffc2da64c37b0d1aaabd24992.png","alt":null,"title":"","style":[{"key":"width","value":"100%"},{"key":"bordertype","value":"none"}],"href":"","fromPaste":false,"pastePass":false}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"我一直不理解爲什麼有這麼多 PM 文章宣傳項目經理應該是“六邊形戰士”,甚至要通曉包括編碼、營銷和設計在內的一切能力。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"“不惜一切代價”的心態不會讓你成爲一名優秀的產品經理,但會讓你成爲一名優秀的員工。當 PM 開始寫代碼、編寫支持文檔或設計產品時,他們就已經違背了作爲項目經理的職責,成爲了一名項目成員。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"strong","attrs":{}}],"text":"每個人,不僅僅是 PM,都應該擁有包容的心態。","attrs":{}},{"type":"text","text":" 如果工程師恰好也擅長營銷,而營銷恰好制約了團隊的發展,那麼他們應該加入並提供幫助。但這並不能使他們成爲更好的工程師。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"作爲團隊中唯一不應該參與構建任務的成員,PM 卻經常發現自己在構建一堆東西。其原因應該是當進度落後時,他們應該第一個提供志願服務;但這絕不代表該工作是 PM 職責的一部分。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"賦能團隊以達成目標,是產品管理的不可簡化的第一原則。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"爲了更深入地探索它,我們還可以做另一個類比:","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"heading","attrs":{"align":null,"level":2},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"產品經理就像運動隊的教練","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"沒有比籃球、排球、足球等團隊運動的教練更好的比喻來說明 PM 應該如何看待他們的角色。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"image","attrs":{"src":"https://static001.geekbang.org/infoq/f0/f01edf4699a24a4b17020ae321115912.png","alt":null,"title":"","style":[{"key":"width","value":"100%"},{"key":"bordertype","value":"none"}],"href":"","fromPaste":false,"pastePass":false}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"heading","attrs":{"align":null,"level":3},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#4c84ff","name":"user"}}],"text":"教練不上場","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"教練不上場。他們受僱支持團隊,並通過幫助他們提高個人和集體潛力來實現這一目標。衡量他們工作成果的標準(無論是球隊還是老闆)就是勝利。一般來說,如果一支球隊沒有獲勝,教練會被解僱,而不是球員。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"PM 不構建、營銷或支持任何東西。我們受僱於支持團隊以實現公司目標。我們通過使每個人都按照產品戰略(原則 A)保持一致並培養健康的團隊活力,使團隊能夠最大限度地發揮他們的個人和集體潛力來做到這一點。一般來說,如果團隊沒有創造出偉大的東西,項目經理(而非團隊)才應該被解僱。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"heading","attrs":{"align":null,"level":3},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#4c84ff","name":"user"}}],"text":"教練的風格取決於教練和球員的相對技能","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"當我第一次寫到 PM 就像體育教練時,你想到了什麼?並非所有教練的角色都是一致的。你是將教練視爲父母而將團隊視爲孩子?還是像勒布朗這樣,由球員告訴教練該做什麼?","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"image","attrs":{"src":"https://static001.geekbang.org/infoq/6f/6f51998fe2f5a6057daefc0c4c82f1ad.gif","alt":null,"title":"","style":[{"key":"width","value":"100%"},{"key":"bordertype","value":"none"}],"href":"","fromPaste":false,"pastePass":false}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"例如,如果你是一名剛從大學畢業的項目經理,你加入了一個由經驗豐富的工程師組成的產品團隊,你要扮演領導者的角色嗎?不應該,因爲你沒有經驗作支持。但這並不意味着你沒有價值。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"PM 需要強大的自我意識來識別,什麼情況下更適合領導、合作或支持他們的團隊。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"image","attrs":{"src":"https://static001.geekbang.org/infoq/b3/b3ae192cb99f6accb2a9bc4a15e58d95.png","alt":null,"title":"","style":[{"key":"width","value":"100%"},{"key":"bordertype","value":"none"}],"href":"","fromPaste":false,"pastePass":false}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"在上述框架中,“技能”是人們能力、經驗、成就和職業道德總和的簡寫。以下是我在職業生涯中的應用:","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"當我在一個應屆畢業生團隊中擔任項目經理時,我會採取非常直接的領導方式。我將規定框架、目標,甚至如何組織項目的執行。這是有道理的,我有成熟的項目經驗,但他們沒有。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"當我與一個與自己技能相同的團隊工作時,我會默認在所有關鍵決策上進行協作,並希望在戰略和執行方面得到每個人的支持。需要明確的是,PM 應該接受在所有情況下進行協作,但這種相對技能的動態最值得一提。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"當我和一支比我更有經驗、更有成就的團隊一起工作時,我會恢復到助理教練或教練的心態。我會問:我怎麼能幫上忙?我可以幫團隊成員解決哪些負擔?此時,我將扮演純粹的輔助角色。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"例如,我會首先詢問經驗豐富的團隊他們的願景,然後用很多問題跟進,以深入瞭解他們的首要原則和策略。然後,我會將所有這些信息綜合到一個文檔中,並與他們及時溝通以確保文檔內容可以一直代表他們的願景。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"請注意,在所有情況下,PM 仍負責產品策略的制定,只是實現的方法可能會有所不同。毫無疑問,不瞭解團隊和 PM 之間的這種相對技能的動態關係,也是 PM 失敗的原因。如果因爲誤讀了情況,失去了對團隊的信任,那需要十倍的時間才能贏回。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"heading","attrs":{"align":null,"level":3},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#4c84ff","name":"user"}}],"text":"當球隊獲勝時,慶祝的是球員,而不是教練","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"當球隊獲勝時,人們很少談論教練。產品團隊也應該如此。如果你的團隊做了令人難以置信的工作,他們應該受到關注 —— 不要偷竊。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"heading","attrs":{"align":null,"level":3},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#4c84ff","name":"user"}}],"text":"教練需要知道每個球員的最佳位置","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"如果不能瞭解每個成員,不瞭解比賽規則,你就不能執教一支球隊。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"image","attrs":{"src":"https://static001.geekbang.org/infoq/95/95a3bb795be78ebe133cdff2d8356e3a.png","alt":null,"title":"","style":[{"key":"width","value":"100%"},{"key":"bordertype","value":"none"}],"href":"","fromPaste":false,"pastePass":false}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"你需要對團隊中每個人所做的所有工作抱有同理心和尊重。還需要了解如何創造有趣的、有智力刺激的工作。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"沒有哪個團隊能忍受長期去做他們相同類型的工作。重複機械的工作會讓人疲憊,隨後大家就沒有那麼多創造性和靈感了。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"PM 需要尊重這一點並不斷創造條件,使團隊中的人能夠成長並完成公司的使命。當你創造了這些條件,那麼每個人都有更多情感投入和主人翁意識。之後,當成員中出現隊長時,教練需要退後一步,讓他們領導。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"對球員來說,從教練那裏聽到你沒有執行力是一回事,但與你從事相同工作的人那裏聽到它完全是另一回事。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"作爲教練,當團隊中的一名球員開始主動承擔責任,並督促周圍的人變得更好時,你就有了最高績效團隊的基礎。在產品團隊中,此人通常是研發或 UX 主管。當這種情況發生時,不妨進一步提升他們對團隊的影響,讓他們成爲你的聯席教練。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"heading","attrs":{"align":null,"level":3},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#4c84ff","name":"user"}}],"text":"教練確保團隊不斷訓練並處於最佳狀態","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"教練不會把所有時間都花在觀看視頻回放和與團隊制定策略上,他們還確保團隊定期練習,以便他們能夠發揮最佳表現。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"無論處於敏捷開發項目、傳統項目、“無流程”流派,還是介於其間,教練都應該確保自己爲了支持他們的流程已經盡了自己最大的努力。請注意,每個團隊和教練互動的最佳方式會有所不同。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"heading","attrs":{"align":null,"level":3},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#4c84ff","name":"user"}}],"text":"教練培養團隊的能量水平和精神狀態","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"對於許多 PM 來說,這是一個令人不舒服的權責概念。但每當我看到一個團隊似乎對工作並不興奮或看起來很疲憊時,我就會向項目經理施加壓力,以培養更健康的動力。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"這當然很難,因爲人是複雜的。我們都因不同的事情而努力做到最好:我們有些人需要鼓勵,有些人需要挑戰,有些人需要朋友,有些人在不同的時間需要這三者。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"這個概念可能會略顯誇張,但它是教練和 PM 該擁有的正確概念。","attrs":{}},{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"strong","attrs":{}}],"text":"創建一個充滿活力和忠誠的團隊是成功的基礎","attrs":{}},{"type":"text","text":",而可重複地實現這一目標是良好的 PM 和領導力的頂峯。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"總而言之,項目管理的核心技藝是","attrs":{}},{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"strong","attrs":{}}],"text":"平衡","attrs":{}},{"type":"text","text":"。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"它需要左右腦同等努力,它是科學與藝術的交點;它需要你極度理性的同時,又對情緒極度敏感。正是這兩種思維方式的對立,讓項目管理變得既令人興奮又難免望而卻步。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"image","attrs":{"src":"https://static001.geekbang.org/infoq/d5/d573029687ad30bb61a937234833ed4f.png","alt":null,"title":"","style":[{"key":"width","value":"100%"},{"key":"bordertype","value":"none"}],"href":"","fromPaste":false,"pastePass":false}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"優秀項目經理的成功意味着平等地尊重左腦和右腦的不同原則,去構築產品策略:最大限度地提高對目標的理解、充分地採集環境信息、保持好教練心態、賦能每一位成員,與團隊一起奔赴最終的使命。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"期待你們能成爲更優秀的PM。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"italic","attrs":{}},{"type":"size","attrs":{"size":9}},{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#777777","name":"user"}}],"text":"本文作者:Brandon Chu","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"italic","attrs":{}},{"type":"size","attrs":{"size":9}},{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#777777","name":"user"}}],"text":"翻譯自:https://blackboxofpm.com/the-first-principles-of-product-management-ea0e2f2a018c","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"希望本文對你有所幫助,感謝閱讀。後續我們還會分享更多關於項目管理和敏捷開發的文章,瞭解更多資訊,請關注","attrs":{}},{"type":"link","attrs":{"href":"https://www.infoq.cn/u/ligaai/publish","title":"","type":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"[email protected]","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"text","text":",也可以點擊我們的官方網站~ ","attrs":{}},{"type":"link","attrs":{"href":"https://www.ligai.cn/?utm_source=mkt&utm_medium=infoq","title":"","type":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"LigaAI-新一代智能研發管理平臺","attrs":{}}]}]}]}
發表評論
所有評論
還沒有人評論,想成為第一個評論的人麼? 請在上方評論欄輸入並且點擊發布.
相關文章