爲什麼年輕一代連操作系統的基本知識都不懂?

{"type":"doc","content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":"文件夾與目錄結構這些幫助前幾代人理解計算機的基本理論,在很多年輕一代看來已經成了一種莫名其妙的“瘋話”。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":" "}]},{"type":"heading","attrs":{"align":null,"level":2},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"兩代人之間的碰撞"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":" "}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":"天體物理學家Catherine Garland從2017年開始逐漸意識到這個問題。當時她正在教授一門工程課程,要求學生們使用仿真軟件爲噴氣發動機中的渦輪機建模。雖然作業佈置得很清楚,但她卻不斷接到學生們的求助電話,他們都說自己收到了同樣的錯誤提示:程序找不到他們的文件(File not Found Error)。當Garland詢問學生作業是保存在桌面上還是共享驅動器時,學生們好像完全聽不懂。“您在說什麼?”他們甚至根本聽不懂Garland的問題。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":" "}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":"其他教授對第一次遇到這類問題的情景同樣記憶猶新。蘇塞克斯大學心理學系講師Lincoln Colling要求全班的研究生們從特定目錄中打開文件,但學生們都很疑惑。同一學期,哥倫比亞大學EAFIT應用物理學家兼講師Nicolás Guarín-Zapata也注意到,自己班上的學生很難找到他們的文件。同年,"},{"type":"link","attrs":{"href":"https:\/\/cseducators.stackexchange.com\/questions\/5551\/what-is-a-file?rq=1","title":null,"type":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"SETM教育者論壇"}],"marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}]},{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":"上開始出現帖子,求助該怎麼向學生們解釋清楚文件的概念。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":" "}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":"這個現象從2017年左右開始出現,距今已經持續了四年左右。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":" "}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":"作爲哥倫比亞大學EAFIT應用物理學家兼講師,Guarín-Zapata的電腦上有一套完整且錯綜複雜的文件夾結構,而且他會把智能手機上的照片按類別進行區分。2000年初,他在上大學的時候也會認真整理論文。現在,他的硬盤驅動器就像一個井井有條的文件櫃。“我打開一個抽屜,裏面有一個櫃子,打開櫃子,裏面又有更多抽屜,這就像是一種嵌套結構。最終,我總能找到自己需要的文件夾或者文件。”"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":" "}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":" "}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":"Guarín-Zapata的這種認知模型通常被稱爲目錄結構,也是現代計算機操作系統用於排列文件的分層系統。現代計算機不只會持續接收文件,還會把它們保存在“下載”文件夾、“桌面”文件夾或者“文檔”文件夾內,而這一切又位於“我的電腦”裏面。每個文件夾之內還可能包含下一級文件夾。對於每一位接觸計算機比較早的朋友,都會對這樣的管理機制習以爲常。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":" "}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":"對於Guarín-Zapata這代人來說,這是個直觀、甚至不需要解釋的基本思路,但他們的學生們卻對此一無所知。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":" "}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":"普林斯頓大學大四學生Joshua Drossman從記事起對計算機系統的感受就跟Garland教授有所區別。他這樣描述自己的認知模型:最直觀的東西就是髒衣簍,我們把所有東西都放進去,需要的時候再拿出來。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":" "}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":" "}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":"作爲一名運籌學與金融工程專業的學生,Drossman懂得如何編程,在本科期間也接受過目錄與文件夾導航的相關培訓。即使如此,他仍然做不到教授們那樣。在參與一個持續九個月的大項目時,Drossman發現相關文件實在太多,最終選擇了放棄管理。“我本來打算把順序排好,但有時候文件實在太多了,弄得人頭痛不已。”Drossman回憶道。最終,他把衆多項目全部塞進了一個巨大的文件夾內。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":" "}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":"某本科大學的計算物理專業教授表示,這些學生是聰明人,但“在 C 驅動器上查找文件夾”的概念對這些人來說是陌生的。他們在大學期間買了筆記本電腦,但完全不知道當他們登錄到 Windows 桌面上時,他們在看什麼。讓他們使用 IDE 進行設置並安裝 Python 是一個痛苦的經歷,但他們實際上很快掌握了編程,並能及時對熱擴散或其他東西進行建模,儘管幾乎不知道他們把東西保存在了哪裏。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":" "}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":"得克薩斯州農工大學新聞專業的Aubrey Vogel談到自己的文件管理習慣時表示,“我也希望把文件組織起來、還做了實際嘗試,但最終只會弄得一團糟。我的家人最受不了我的桌面,上面密密麻麻擺着無數個圖標。”"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":" "}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":"而另一方面,教授們對自己學生的行爲也完全無法理解。“學生們在實驗室裏都要用電腦,但他們會把無數文件直接丟在桌面上,毫無組織、毫無紀律。”喬治梅森大學物理學與天文學副教授Peter Plavchan說道。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":" "}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":"目前,各個學科的STEM教授們都在編程課中遇到了教學雙方無法溝通的問題。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":" "}]},{"type":"heading","attrs":{"align":null,"level":2},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"爲什麼會發生變化?"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":" "}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":"“在第一次使用計算機之前,我根本就沒考慮到這個問題。”Drossman說道。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":" "}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":"據codecentric CTO Uwe Friedrichsen觀察,大約每五年就會出現一批新的來自大學或其他地方的開發人員。“這在一定程度上意味着,我們每五年就會失去一次集體記憶。這些人不知道幾年前讓你大開眼界的談話或文章,他們必須重新開始學習所有的東西。”"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":" "}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":" "}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":"就像教授們熟悉的文件夾概念,似乎已經過時了。很多像Drossman那麼大的孩子在高中階段已經開始把文件存儲在 OneDrive 和 Dropbox中,並徹底告別了紙質文件。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":" "}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":"如今的學生最熟悉的是手機和平板電腦,由於對雲的依賴,這些設備幾乎隱藏起了操作系統的概念。有大學教計算機基礎課程的老師現身說法:"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":" "}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":"“在這門課上,學生們按照指令製作一些文檔,這些幾乎都是在MS Office中完成的。完成後,他們會保存文件,然後上傳到我們的服務器。這些文檔通過自動作弊檢測後,我再下載下來進行評分。在OneDrive出現之前,一切都很順利。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":" "}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":"但現在,學生們提交未完成的作品是非常常見的,因爲他們會將作品保存到OneDrive,然後立即開始上傳作品提交。他們不知道剛剛保存到雲的版本還沒有被觸發下載到本地機器上,因此他們會提交一份不完整的文件。作業做得很差,然後向我證明他們正確地完成了作業,最終迫使我重新評分。一段時間內,我會對 Microsoft 工作流程的這種變化感到不滿。”"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":" "}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":"“我不知道爲什麼提供商反而認爲雲存儲是最佳解決方案。”這也是很多網友提出的疑問。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":" "}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":"另一方面,Instagram、TikTok、Facebook以及YouTube等主流智能手機應用都在引導學生們從龐大的在線海洋中提取內容,而不用再把信息放置在緊密嵌套的結構當中,這可能也導致了新一代人對文件夾概念並不熟悉。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":" "}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":"“在我翻動Snapchat和Twitter時,裏面的內容沒有任何特定順序,但我還是能記住對應的內容大概在哪裏。”有位iPhone忠實用戶坦言。現代的瀏覽方式已經形成了一種肌肉記憶。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":" "}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":"同時,年輕一代的用戶們也習慣了直接從用戶界面中搜索內容,而不是一層層翻文件夾或者目錄結構。而在很多教授的成長過程中,手機和電腦上從來就沒有搜索功能。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":" "}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":"全球第一款互聯網搜索引擎在1990年左右開始普及,而Windows搜索與Mac OS上的Spotlight等功能也在2000年初正式出現。iPhone剛誕生時,現在的95後還在讀小學或初中,而且這一代人的歲數跟谷歌差不多大。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":" "}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":"“這代人並不比以往任何時候都更精通技術,他們只是更深入地沉浸其中,甚至越來越多的人迷失了。”有網友評價道。“這個年齡段裏有一些真正的奇才,但也有很多人除了點擊TikTok符號、打開TikTok之外,對計算機概念一無所知。”"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":" "}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":"這種新的思維方式可以說是技術進步的直接體現。但問題在於,開發人員在編寫並通過命令行運行代碼時,必須明確指定要訪問的文件存放在哪裏,程序無法自行搜索這些文件。有些編程語言雖然提供搜索功能,但由於實現難度太大,使用頻率很低。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":" "}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":" "}]},{"type":"heading","attrs":{"align":null,"level":2},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"舊知識還有價值嗎?"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":" "}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":"“從 MS-DOS 開始。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":"cd(或 chdir)——改變目錄"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":"dir -- 列出當前目錄中的文件"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":"mkdir -- 創建一個目錄..."}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":"甚至在我開始使用 Unix 之前,這些就已經烙進我的腦子裏了。”"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":" "}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":"很多人回憶起了自己初學計算機時的情況,也有很多人開始討論“文件夾”、“目錄”的區別。但隨着新技術的發展,這些5年、10年甚至20多年前的東西還有價值嗎?"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":" "}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#494949","name":"user"}}],"text":"codecentric CTO Uwe Friedrichsen曾表示,在 IT 中,“新”被認爲是“有價值的”,而“舊”被認爲是“毫無價值”。前人一遍又一遍地講述同樣的故事,但對於每年大量加入 IT 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